Facts About Punjab – Punjab State, the Land of Five Rivers, is situated in the North Western region of India. It is the only state in India with a majority of Sikh people. The land of Punjab is very fertile. It is also known as Golden Harvests. It is surrounded by Haryana, Rajasthan, Himachal Pradesh and Jammu & Kashmir. The Punjab province in Pakistan also surrounds Punjab.
Its Official Language is Punjabi. Chandigarh is the Capital of both the States of Punjab and Haryana. Chandigarh is a Union Territory. The largest city in Punjab is Ludhiana. The climate of Punjab is diverse, i.e., very cold in winters and very hot in summers. The Total Land Area of Punjab is 50,362 sq. km. Punjab holds 19th rank in position as area wise.
- In later years Punjab saw the rise and fall of the Mauryas, Bactrians, Greeks, Sakas, Kushans and Guptas.
- Medieval Punjab saw a supremacy of the Muslims.
- Ghaznavi was followed by the Ghoris, the slaves, the Khiljis, the Tughlaks, the Lodhis and the Mughals.
- Fifteenth and sixteenth centuries marked a period of the watershed in the history of Punjab.
- It was Guru Gobind Singh, the tenth Guru, who transformed the Sikhs into the Khalsa.
- After two abortive Anglo-Sikh wars, Punjab was finally annexed to the British Empire in 1849. The fight against the British rule had begun long before Mahatma Gandhi’s arrival on the scene.
- First, it was Namdhari sect, which believed in self-discipline and self-rule. Later, it was Lala Lajpat Rai who played a leading role in the Freedom Movement.
- Punjab was in the vanguard of India’s freedom struggle on all fronts in India and abroad.
Eight princely states of East Punjab were grouped together to form a single state called PEPSU-Patiala and the East Punjab States Union-with Patiala as its capital. PEPSU state was merged with Punjab in 1956. Later in 1966, Haryana was carved out of Punjab.
Economy and Connectivity
- Punjab has International Airport in Amritsar. Chandigarh and Ludhiana have domestic airports. Amritsar has a large railway station. Punjab is well connected with roadways, railways and airways.
- Agriculture is the backbone of Punjab. The major crops are wheat, rice and cotton. There are several kinds of food based industries. The state is the biggest producer of Wheat in India. There are several other large-scale industries.
State Symbols of Punjab
|Emblem||Lion Capital of Ashoka with Wheat stem (above) and Crossed Swords (below)|
|Language||Punjabi, English, Hindi.|
|Sport||Kabaddi (Circle Style)|
According to the India State Hunger Index, Punjab has the lowest level of hunger in India.
Wildlife Sanctuaries in Punjab
- Abohar Wildlife Sanctuary
- Bir Aishvan Wildlife Sanctuary
- Bir Bhadson Wildlife Sanctuary
- Bir Bunerheri Wildlife Sanctuary
- Bir Dosanjh Wildlife Sanctuary
- Bir Gurdialpura Wildlife Sanctuary
- Bir Mehaswala Wildlife Sanctuary
- Bir Motibagh Wildlife Sanctuary
- Harike Lake Wildlife Sanctuary
- Jhajjar Bacholi Wildlife Sanctuary
- Kathlaur Kushlan Wildlife Sanctuary
- Takhni-Rehampur Wildlife Sanctuary
- Nangal Wildlife Sanctuary
Rivers of Punjab
- Punjab literally means “(The Land of) Five Waters” referring to the following rivers: the Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Sutlej, and Beas.
- All are tributaries of the Indus River, the Chenab being the largest.
Famous places in Punjab
The moment you hear Amritsar mentioned, your mind is sure to recall the famous attraction in the land – The Golden temple. This ancient land is home to various shrines and places of historical importance. Here are the places to visit in Amritsar.
- Golden Temple
- Jallianwala Bagh
- Akal Takht
- Tara Taran Sahib
- Maharaja Ranjit Singh Panorama
- Wagah Border
- Maharaja Ranjit Singh Museum
- Rambagh Garden
- Summer Palace of Maharaja Ranjit Singh
- Harike Wetland and Bird Sanctuary
- Khalsa College
- Durgiana Temple
- Bathinda Fort
- Kaiser Bagh Park
Chandigarh is the capital of both Punjab and Haryana. The city is considered the best-planned city in the country. It is called ‘The City Beautiful’ and you will surely agree with it once you visit the beautiful city where modernization has not destroyed the natural treasures of the land. Here are the places to visit in Chandigarh.
- The Rock Garden
- Sukhna Lake
- Leisure Valley
- Shanti Kunj
- Morni Hills
- Chhatbir Zoo
- Rose Garden
- Le Corbusier Centre
- Government Museum and Art Gallery
- Sarkaria Cactus Garden
- Timber Trail
- Butterfly Park
- Yadvinder Garden
- Garden of Fragrance
- Chandigarh Botanical Garden and Nature Park
- Mahendra Chaudhary Zoological Park
- Chhatbir Zoo
- Terraced Garden
- International Dolls Museum
Ludhiana is the largest city in the state. It has its share of historical monuments and religious centres. It is situated close to the banks of the river Sutlej. The land had made a significant contribution during freedom fight. Though not in great numbers, the tourist attractions it has cannot be missed on your tour to Punjab. The important places of Ludhiana include:
- Lodhi Fort
- Rural Heritage Museum
- Tiger Zoo
- Punjab Agricultural University Museum
- Gurudwara Charan Kamal
- Maharaja Ranjit Singh War Museum
- Phillaur Fort
- Nehru Rose Garden
- Deer Park
The erstwhile princely state, Patiala, is famously referred to as the ‘City of newspapers’. The city has some of the best architecture that reflects the glorious past of the land. It is a blend of Rajput, Punjabi and Mughal cultures. Given below are the top attractions in Patiala.
- Qila Mubarak Complex
- Moti Bagh Palace
- Baradari Garden
- Sheesh Mahal
- Darbar Hall
- Bir Moti Bagh Sanctuary
- Lachman Jhoola
- Kali Temple
The geographical location of Pathankot gains importance as it is the meeting point of Punjab, Jammu & Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh. The scenic beauty of the land and its rich history have made the land a popular tourist destination. Here are some of the leading tourist attractions in the city.
- Mukteshwar Temple
- Ashapurni Mandir
- Kathgarh Temple
- Nurpur Fort
- Ranjit Sagar Dam
- Hydraulic Research Station
- Shahpurkandi Fort
- Kali Mata Ka Mandir
Mohali, Chandigarh and Panchkula together are called Tri-city. The city acquired its name after Guru Gobind Singh’s eldest son Sahibzada Ajit Singh and hence is also called as SAS Nagar. While retaining its ancient heritage, Mohali, is also home to a good number of IT industries. The top tourist attractions in Mohali include:
- Rose Garden
- Silvi Park
- Mataur Lake
- Rock Garden
- Sukhna Lake
- Sukhna Wildlife Sanctuary
- Gurdwara Amb Sahib
- Mansa Devi Temple
- Gurudwara Nada Sahib
- Punjab Cricket Association Stadium
Famous Personalities of Punjab
- Rana Kapoor, founder and managing director of Yes Bank
- Sunil Mittal, owner of Bharti Airtel
- Kalpana Chawla
- Rakesh Sharma, first Indian in space
- Harbhajan Singh
- Virat Kohli
- Yuvraj Singh
- Gautam Gambhir
- Kapil Dev
- Shikhar Dhawan
- Arun Jaitley
- Manmohan Singh
- Parkash Singh Badal
- Sheila Dikshit
- Rani Mukerji
- Priyanka Chopra
- Parineeti Chopra
- Hrithik Roshan
- Twinkle Khanna
- Shahid Kapoor
- Kareena Kapoor
- Ranbir Kapoor
- Ajay Devgan
- Vivek Oberoi
- Sunny Leone
- Zakir Hussain
- Honey Singh (Punjabi rapper)
- Ustad Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan
- Abhinav Bindra, 1st individual Olympic Gold Medalist
- Gagan Narang, the only Indian to win two medals at a World championship
Thermal Power Plants in Punjab
- Guru Gobind Singh Super Thermal Power Plant
- Guru Nanak Dev Thermal Plant
- The Golden Temple has been a monument of worldwide fame on account of organizing the largest langar sewa in the world, where more than 35000 people are fed on a daily basis.
- The population of Punjab(Indian Punjab) is greater than that of Australia.
- There were a total of 41 foreigners who served in the court of Maharaja Ranjit Singh(1780-1839) and built an empire which had the highest GDP in the world and most scholars, intellectuals, surpassing the Europeans.
- The language spoken in Punjab is (of course) Punjabi, which is the 10th most spoken language of the world and 3rd most popular language of Canada.
- Punjab is the safest and prosperous state in India.
- Sons of Punjab have also contributed to the glorious Indian Army for generations.