Facts About Jammu and Kashmir – Explained In Detail.

Facts about Jammu and Kashmir – Jammu and Kashmir is a state in northern India. It is located mostly in the Himalayan mountains. It shares a border with the states of Himachal Pradesh and Punjab to the south. Jammu and Kashmir have an international border with China in the north and east.

The Line of Control separates it from the Pakistan-controlled territories of Azad Kashmir and Gilgit-Baltistan in the west and northwest respectively. The state has special autonomy under Article 370 of the Constitution of India.

Historical Facts about Jammu and Kashmir

  • Kalhana, the first Indian history writer, gave a vivid account of the history of Kashmir before the 10th century AD.
  • The greatest Muslim king of early medieval age in Kashmir was Zain-ul-Abidin, who ascended the throne in AD 1420 and ruled up to 1470.
  • His long rule contributed extensively to the spread of art, culture, music, and every other sphere in the life of Kashmir people.
  • He also created a strong army and annexed many regions nearby Kashmir. These were the time of golden rule in Kashmir when peace and harmony prevailed.
  • After the death of King Zain-ul-Abidin, a period of destruction came calling to Kashmir and many raiders from outside looted the state and made the people and local rulers their captive.
  •  In 1587, Akbar annexed Kashmir into his vast empire.
  • Jahangir, son of Akbar and next Mughal ruler, visited Kashmir 13 times and created two beautiful gardens on the bank of Dal Lake, namely, the Shalimar Bagh and Nishat Bagh.
  • After two centuries of peace and development, Kashmir came into the hands of the Pathans in 1752, when the Afghan ruler Abdul Shah Abdali attacked this region on the request of local noblemen.
  • In 1819, the Sikhs under Maharaja Ranjit Singh annexed this region, but their empire remained in place only for 27 years.
  • A part of the erstwhile Princely State of Kashmir and Jammu, the region is the subject of a territorial conflict among China, India and Pakistan.
  • The western districts of the former princely state known as Azad Kashmir and the northern territories known as Gilgit-Baltistan have been under Pakistani control since 1947.
  • The Aksai Chin region in the east, bordering Tibet, has been under Chinese control since 1962.

Present Day Facts about Jammu and Kashmir

  • Jammu and Kashmir consisting of three regions: Jammu(25.93%), the Kashmir Valley(15.73%) and Ladakh(58.33%). The Kashmir valley is famous for its beautiful mountainous landscape, and Jammu’s numerous shrines attract tens of thousands of Hindu pilgrims every year.
  • Ladakh, also known as “Little Tibet”, is renowned for its remote mountain beauty and Buddhist culture.
  • Jammu and Kashmir is home to several valleys such as the Kashmir Valley, Tawi Valley, Chenab Valley, Poonch Valley, Sind Valley and Lidder Valley. Because of Jammu and Kashmir’s wide range of elevations, its biogeography is diverse.
  • The Jhelum River is the only major Himalayan river which flows through the Kashmir valley. The Indus, Tawi, Ravi and Chenab are the major rivers flowing through the state. Jammu and Kashmir is home to several Himalayan glaciers.
  • In Jammu and Kashmir, the principal spoken languages are Kashmiri, Urdu, Dogri, Pahari, Balti, Ladakhi, Gojri, Shina and Pashto.
  • However, Urdu written in the Persian script is the official language of the state.
  • Kawa, traditional green tea with spices and almond, is consumed all through the day in the chilly winter climate of Kashmir.

Major Cities

  • Municipal corporations: 2 – Srinagar, Jammu
  • Municipal councils: 6 – Udhampur, Kathua, Poonch, Anantnag, Baramulla, Sopore
  • Municipal boards: 21 – Samba, Ranbirsinghpora, Akhnoor, Reasi, Ramban, Doda, Bhaderwah, Kishtwar, Kargil, Dooru-Verinag, Bijbehara, Pulwama, Tral, Badgam, Kulgam, Shopian, Ganderbal, Pattan, Sumbal, Kupwara, Handwara

The government of Jammu and Kashmir 

Governor Manoj Sinha
Chief Minister Manoj Sinha
Chief Justice Justice Sanjeev Kumar
High Court Jammu and Kashmir High Court
Capital Srinagar is the summer capital, and Jammu is the winter capital

State Symbols

State animal Kashmir stag
State bird Black-necked crane(Hangul)
State flower Lotus
State tree Chinar


Assembly Seats 89 (87 elected; 2 nominated)
Lok Sabha Seats 6
Rajya Sabha Seats 4

Wildlife Sanctuaries

  • Baltal-Thajwas  Wildlife Sanctuary
  • Changthang Cold Desert  Wildlife Sanctuary
  • Gulmarg  Wildlife Sanctuary
  • Hirapora  Wildlife Sanctuary
  • Hokersar  Wildlife Sanctuary
  • Jasrota  Wildlife Sanctuary
  • Karakoram (Nubra Shyok)  Wildlife Sanctuary
  • Lachipora  Wildlife Sanctuary
  • Limber  Wildlife Sanctuary
  • Nandini  Wildlife Sanctuary
  • Overa Aru  Wildlife Sanctuary
  • Rajparian  Wildlife Sanctuary
  • Ramnagar Rakha  Wildlife Sanctuary
  • Surinsar Mansar  Wildlife Sanctuary
  • Trikuta  Wildlife Sanctuary

National Parks

  • City Forest (Salim Ali) National Park
  • Dachigam National Park
  • Hemis National Park
  • Kishtwar National Park

Hydroelectric Power Plants

  • Mohra Hydro-Electric Power Stations
  • The Sind Valley Hydro-Electric Project
  • The Pahalgam Hydro-Electric Project
  • Lower Jhelum Hydel Project (Sheri)

Famous Temples in Jammu and Kashmir

  •  Shankaracharya Temple
  • Hari Parbat Fort & Temple of Sharika Devi
  • Kheer Bhawani
  • Martand
  • Awantipur
  • Chhatti Padshahi Gurudwara

Famous Mosques in Jammu and Kashmir

  • Hazratbal Mosque
  • Khanqah of Shah Hamadan
  • Jama Masjid

Natural Resources

  •  Bauxite
  • Gypsum
  • Limestone
  • Coal
  • Zinc
  • Copper

Main Festivals

  •  Baisakhi(Sikh festival)
  • Eid-ul-Fitr and Eid-ul-Azha, Urs (Muslim festivals)
  • Hemis Festival(Buddhist festival)
  • Dussehra
  • Diwali
  • Vaishno Devi


  • Dumhal
  • Rouff

Major Airports in Jammu and Kashmir

  • Srinagar International Airport
  • Jammu Airport
  • Poonch Airport
  • Kargil Airport
  • Kushok Bakula Rimpochee Airport

Some Famous Personalities

  • Suresh Raina, Indian International Cricket Team
  • Chain Singh, Indian national shooting team
  • Anupam Kher, actor
  • N. Kaul, Comptroller and Auditor General of India, Padma Bhushan
  • Omar Abdullah, Chief Minister of Jammu & Kashmir
  • T.S. Thakur, incumbent Chief Justice of India
  • Sheikh Abdullah, Former Chief Minister of Jammu & Kashmir
  • Jitendra Singh, BJP’s National Executive member and Chief Spokesperson for the state of Jammu and Kashmir
  • Bansi Kaul, Hindi theatre director and founder of Rang Vidushak who was awarded Padma Shri
  • Vikrant Mahajan, Former Mr India, motivational speaker, bestselling author and film producer

Random Facts about Jammu and Kashmir

  • Jammu and Kashmir is the only state in India with a Muslim-majority population.
  • Jammu and Kashmir is known for its beauty and is described variously as the Paradise on Earth, the Dream Land, the choicest creation of God etc.
  • The name Srinagar means the “City of Lakshmi, the Goddess of Wealth”. It was founded by Ashoka the Great. The present city of Srinagar was built by Pravarsena II adjoining the old city.
  • A real charmer, the floating post-office-cum-philately museum fits itself into a largish boat and is moored right on the Boulevard. It is known to be India’s first floating post office is in Kashmir.
  • While Aurangzeb visited Kashmir only once, Jahangir topped the chart by visiting this beautiful valley 13 times during his reign.


1. Which article in the Indian constitution is a temporary provision for Jammu and Kashmir?

Answer – Article 370

2. Who was the last Ruling Maharaja of Jammu and Kashmir?

Answer – Hari Singh

3. The Hemis National Park is famous for ________.

Answer – Snow Leopard

4. When did the constitution of Jammu and Kashmir come into force?

Answer – January 26, 1957

5. The tenure of  Jammu and Kashmir assembly is _____________ years?

Answer – Six Years

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