What is UNESCO?
Unesco World Heritage Sites in India-The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN). UNESCO has 195 member states and nine associate members. Most of its field offices are “cluster” offices covering three or more countries; national and regional offices also exist.
UNESCO’s aim is “to contribute to the building of peace, the eradication of poverty, sustainable development and intercultural dialogue through education, the sciences, culture, communication and information“.
A World Heritage Site is a landmark which has been officially recognized by the United Nations, specifically by the UNESCO. Sites are selected on the basis of having cultural, historical, scientific or some other form of significance, and they are legally protected by international treaties.
UNESCO WORLD HERITAGE SITES IN INDIA
1. NATURAL WORLD HERITAGE SITES IN INDIA
|S No.||Natural World Heritage Site||State||Year of Notification||Area (In Km2)|
|1||Kaziranga National Park||Assam||1985||429.96|
|2||Keoladeo Ghana National Park||Rajasthan||1985||28.73|
|3||Manas Wildlife Sanctuary||Assam||1985||391.00|
|4||Nanda Devi National Park and Valley of Flowers||Uttarakhand||1982|
|5||Sunderbans National Park||West Bengal||1984||1,330.10|
Tamil Nadu and
|7||Great Himalayan National Park||Himachal Pradesh||2014||905.4|
2. CULTURAL WORLD HERITAGE SITES IN INDIA
|S No.||Name of Cultural World Heritage Site||State||Year of Notification|
|1||Agra Fort||Uttar Pradesh||1983|
|3||Buddhist Monuments at Sanchi||Madhya Pradesh||1989|
|4||Champaner-Pavagadh Archaeological Park||Gujarat||2004|
|5||Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus (Formerly Victoria Terminus)||Maharashtra||2004|
|6||Churches and Convents of Goa||Goa||1986|
|9||Fatehpur Sikri||Uttar Pradesh||1986|
|10||Great Living Chola Temples||Tamil Nadu||1987|
|11||Group of Monuments at Hampi||Karnataka||1986|
|12||Group of Monuments at Mahabalipuram||Tamil Nadu||1984|
|13||Group of Monuments at Pattadakal||Karnataka||1987|
|14||Hill Forts of Rajasthan||Rajasthan (Chittorgarh, Kumbhalgarh, Ranthambhore, Amber Sub-Cluster, Jaisalmer, Gagnon)||2013|
|15||Humayun’s Tomb, Delhi||Delhi||1993|
|16||Khajuraho Group of Monuments||Madhya Pradesh||1986|
|17||Mahabodhi Temple Complex at Bodh Gaya||Bihar||2002|
|18||Mountain Railways of India||Tamil Nadu||1999|
|19||Qutb Minar and its Monuments, Delhi||Delhi||1993|
|20||Rani-Ki-Van (the Queen’s Stepwell) at Patan, Gujarat||Gujarat||2014|
|21||Red Fort Complex||Delhi||2007|
|22||Rock Shelters of Bhimbetka||Madhya Pradesh||2003|
|23||Sun Temple, Konarak||Orissa||1984|
|24||Taj Mahal||Uttar Pradesh||1983|
|25||The Jantar Mantar, Jaipur||Rajasthan||2010|
|26||Archaeological Site of Nalanda Mahavihara (Nalanda University) at Nalanda||Bihar||2016|
|27||The Architectural Work of Le Corbusier, an Outstanding Contribution to the Modern Movement||Chandigarh||2016|
|28||Gothic and Art Deco architecture||Mumbai||2018|
3. MIXED WORLD HERITAGE SITES IN INDIA
|S No.||Name of Mixed World Heritage Site||State||Year of Notification|
|1||Khangchendzonga National Park||Sikkim||2016|
Source – UNESCO World Heritage Convention
Did You Know?
UNESCO pursues its objectives through five major programs. They are
- Natural sciences
- Social/human sciences
Headquarters: Place de Fontenoy, Paris, France
Three new sites – “Archaeological Site of Nalanda Mahavihara (Nalanda University)” at Nalanda, Bihar, “Capitol Building Complex – The Architectural Work of Le Corbusier” in Chandigarh and “Khangchendzonga National Park, Sikkim” have been added to the list in July 2016.
Apart from the 35 sites inscribed on the World Heritage list, India has also maintained a list of tentative sites for recognition which has been submitted to UNESCO Committee for evaluation and acceptance.
In July 2018, UNESCO announced Gothic and Art Deco architecture in Mumbai as UNESCO’s Cultural World Heritage Sites in India.