Complete List of Nobel Prize Winners 2019
Nobel Prize Winners 2019 : In all Competitive Exams, we can expect at least one question from the Latest List of Nobel Prize Winners. The List of Nobel Prize Winners 2019 has been given below.
|S.No.||Category||Nobel Prize Winners 2019||Additional Information|
|1||Medicine||William Kaelin and Gregg Semenza of the US and Britain’s Peter Ratcliffe||They split the nine million Swedish kronor ($914,000, 833,000 euros) award this year for discoveries on how cells sense and adapt to oxygen availability, paving the way for new cancer treatments|
|2||Chemistry||John B Goodenough, Stanley Whittingham, and Akira Yoshino||John B Goodenough, Stanley Whittingham, and Akira Yoshino would receive this year’s Nobel Prize in Chemistry for developing the lithium-ion batteries. These batteries are today used in everyday items; from mobile phones to remote controls and even electric vehicles.|
|3||Physics||Canadian-American cosmologist James Peebles and Swiss astronomers Michel Mayor and Didier Queloz||They would share this year’s Nobel Prize in Physics “for theoretical discoveries that have contributed to our understanding of how the Universe evolved after the Big Bang”.|
|4||Literature||Polish author Olga Tokarczuk and Austrian novelist Peter Handke||Polish author Olga Tokarczuk and Austrian novelist Peter Handke would receive 2018 and 2019 Nobel Prize for Literature. The prize was postponed in 2018 after the academy was hit by a sexual assault scandal.|
|5||Peace||Abiy Ahmed||Ethiopian Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed would be given the Nobel Peace Prize this year for ending 20 years of hostility with neighbouring Eritrea.|
|6||Economics||Indian-American Abhijit Banerjee, his wife Esther Duflo, and Michael Kremer||Their “experimental approach to alleviating global poverty”.|
What is a Nobel Prize?
- The Nobel Prizes are prizes instituted by the will of Alfred Bernhard Nobel.
- They are awarded to people/organizations, which have done outstanding research, invented groundbreaking techniques or equipment, or made outstanding contributions to society.
- The Nobel Prizes are awarded annually in the categories of physics, chemistry, physiology or medicine, literature, peace, and economics.
- The Nobel Prizes are prizes awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, the Swedish Academy, the Karolinska Institutet, and the Norwegian Nobel Committee to individuals and organizations.
- The Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences was established in 1968 by the Sveriges Riksbank, the central bank of Sweden, for contributions to the field of economics.
What is the Prize given for the Winners?
- With the glory comes a 9-million kronor ($918,000) cash award to be shared a gold medal and a diploma. The laureates receive them at an elegant ceremony in Stockholm on Dec. 10 the anniversary of Nobel’s death in 1896 together with five other Nobel winners. The sixth one, the peace prize, is handed out in Oslo, Norway on the same day.
About Alfred Nobel
Alfred Bernhard Nobel
|Born||21 October 1833|
|Died||10 December 1896 (aged 63)|
|Resting place||Norra begravningsplatsen, Stockholm, Sweden|
|Occupation||Chemist, engineer, inventor, businessman, philanthropist|
|Known for||Benefactor of the Nobel Prize, inventor of dynamite|
- Known for inventing dynamite, Nobel also owned Bofors, which he had redirected from its previous role as primarily an iron and steel producer to a major manufacturer of cannon and other armaments. Nobel held 355 different patents, dynamite being the most famous.
- The synthetic element nobelium was named after him.
Why Alfred Nobel started Nobel Prize?
In 1888 Alfred’s brother Ludvig died while visiting Cannes and a French newspaper erroneously published Alfred’s obituary. It condemned him for his invention of dynamite and is said to have brought about his decision to leave a better legacy after his death. The obituary stated, Le marchand de la mort est mort which means “The merchant of death is dead” and went on to say, “Dr. Alfred Nobel, who became rich by finding ways to kill more people faster than ever before, died yesterday.” Alfred (who never had a wife or children) was disappointed with what he read and concerned with how he would be remembered.
Categories in Nobel Prize
Alfred Nobel’s will made provision for only five prizes. Later economics prize was added later in his memory. The six prizes awarded are:
- Nobel Prize in Physics – Awarded by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences
- Nobel Prize in Chemistry – Awarded by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences
- Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine – Awarded by the Karolinska Institute
- Nobel Prize in Literature – Awarded by the Swedish Academy
- Nobel Prize in Peace – Awarded by the Norwegian Nobel Committee
- Nobel Memorial Prize in Economics – Also known as the Bank of Sweden Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel, it was instituted in 1969 by Sveriges Riksbank, the Bank of Sweden. Although it is awarded by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences with the official Nobel prizes, it is not paid for by his money, and is technically not a Nobel Prize.
How the recipients of Nobel Prize are selected?
- The Peace Prize award ceremony on December 10 is the culmination of a long selection process.
- According to rules, there can be a maximum of three Laureates in a category every year.
- The Norwegian Nobel Committee begins the whole process by inviting nominations which can be submitted by February 1 each year.
Interesting facts about Nobel Prize
- The average age of all Nobel Laureates in all prize categories between 1901 and 2014 is 59 years.
- Most common birthday month of all the Nobel Laureates is June.
- Since 1901, prizes have not been awarded 49 times, most of them during World War I (1914-1918) and II (1939-1945).
- Leonid Hurwicz has the distinction of being the oldest Nobel recipient at the age of 90 for Economics in 2007.
- Till now, 48 women have won the Nobel while two Laureates declined the prize.
- Jean-Paul Sartre, awarded the 1964 Nobel Prize in Literature, declined it as he had consistently declined all official honours.
- Le Duc Tho, awarded the 1973 Nobel Peace Prize jointly with U.S. Secretary of State Henry Kissinger for negotiating the Vietnam peace accord, said he was not in a position to accept the award, citing the situation in Vietnam as his reason.
- Four Laureates were forced by authorities to decline the Nobel.
- Adolf Hitler forbade three Germans Richard Kuhn, Adolf Butenandt and Gerhard Domagk, from accepting the Nobel Prize. They, however, received the Nobel Prize Diploma and Medal later but not the prize amount.
- Boris Pasternak, the 1958 Nobel Laureate in Literature, initially accepted the Prize but was later coerced by authorities of his native country the Soviet Union to decline the award.
- Three Peace Laureates — Germany’s Carl von Ossietzky, Myanmar’s pro-democracy icon Aung San Suu Kyi and Chinese rights activist Liu Xiaobo — were under arrest at the time of the award.
- The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) was given the Nobel Peace Prize thrice while its founder Henry Dunant won the first Peace Prize in 1901.
- Linus Pauling has the distinction of being the only person to have been awarded two unshared Nobel Prizes — the 1954 Prize in Chemistry and the 1962 Peace Prize.
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